CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY (inorganic and organic substances. Theoretical fundamentals)

APPLICATION OF LAYER-BY-LAYER METHOD FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ACARICIDE AGENTS ON CELLULOSIC TEXTILE MATERIALS

The professional clothing with a repellent finish becomes necessary in the modern world. It is used for foresters, geologists, rescue workers, firefighters, military, personnel of mineral exploration, drilling and gas fields, etc. Clothing with a repellent finish as prophylactic in periods of tick-borne encephalitis epidemics becomes especially relevant. The purpose of the study was to develop a technology of textile materials permanent repellent finishing by means of oppositely charged poly electrolytes. The cotton and cotton- polyester textile materials with surface density from 123 to 350 g/m2 , previously prepared for the repellent finishing, were served as a research object. The polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) and Akremony were used as a polyelectrolytes. The influence of the polyelectrolytes application sequence on the kinetics of repellent release from textile materials was investigated by means of gas chromatography.

2016, Т. 59, № 7, Стр. 42-46

INDIUM EXTRACTION FROM SOLUTIONS WITH MODIFIED ALUMINOSILICATES

The aim of this work was to study the adsorption of indium from aqueous solutions on modified highly dispersed aluminosilicates for the recovery of indium from technological so-lutions. The adsorption isotherms of indium, iron and zinc from multi component solutions on modified by di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid montmorillonite were obtained. It was shown that adsorption processes can be reliably described by models of Langmuir and Freundlich (R2 = 0.96–0.99). The shape of the isotherms is determined both by the surface properties of the sorbent and forms of presence of metal ions in aqueous solutions. The highest value of Langmuir constant Kads = 422.65 for reagent "Metоsol" was obtained for ions of indium, which indicates the preferential affinity of the sorbing mineral to this element, since the cor-responding figures for the ions Fe2+ (1.09) and Zn2+ (0.78) are close to unity.

2016, Т. 59, № 7, Стр. 35-41

ENTHALPY OF INTERACTION OF ION-EXCHANGE HETEROGENEOUS MEMBRANES AND THEIR GRANULAR ANALOGUES WITH AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

Ion-exchange membranes are widely used for extraction, separation and concentra-tion of aqueous nitrogen-containing solutions. In the study the heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes of cationic type- MK-40, Ralex CM (H) -PP, MK-41 – and anionic type - MA-41, Ralex AM (H) -PP and also their granular analogues – cation exchanger KУ-2·8 and anion exchanger AB-17·8 were used. Sorption of nitrate ions and ammonium ions was conducted from the ammonium nitrate solution with concentration of 0.012 mole / dm³. To determine sorption thermochemical characteristics of the studied ions the calorimetric method was used. It was found that for all the studied types of membranes and ion exchangers the pro-cesses were accompanied by heat evolution. From the calorimetric measurements the ther-mokinetic interaction curves of cation-exchange membranes and KУ-28 with the ammonium nitrate solution and anion-exchange membranes and AB-178 with the solution of the same salt were obtained.

2016, Т. 59, № 7, Стр. 29-34

SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COPPER SOLS IN PRESENCE OF NITRILOTRI(METHYLENE)PHOSPHONIC ACID

In this work the conditions for synthesis of copper nanoparticles by sodium tetrahy-droborate in the presence of NTF are optimized. It is proved that the most favorable condi-tions for the reduction of copper in the solutions with its concentration of 2.0∙10-2 mol/l, are created when the concentration of tetrahydroborate sodium is three to four- fold exceeded, the titratable alkalinity is 5.3∙10-2-10.3∙10-2 mol/l, the temperature is 60 °C and the ratio of cation and chelate is equimolar. The method of photon correlation spectroscopy has con-firmed the obtaining of copper nanoparticles with hydrodynamic radius of 25 nm, including shell stabilizers. The immutability of the size of bass for at least 72 h has been revealed.

Key words: complexions, copper sols, bio-protectability, cellulose-containing materials

REFERENCES
1. RF Patent N 2171693 (publ. 10.08.2001) (in Russian).
2. RF Patent N 2523312 (publ. 20.07.2014) (in Russian).

2016, Т. 59, № 6, Стр. 112‒117

MODIFICATION OF POLYESTER FIBERS TO CREATE COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH ADJUSTABLE RIGIDITY

Research aims at experimental study of an effective method of creating polymer-fiber composite materials with a comb structure of an interfacial layer. To change the surface mi-cro-relief of polyester fiber method of surface saponification in the presence of a quaternary ammonium compound was used. This method provides localized hydrolysis reacting of poly-mer to form dotted etch wells. Fiber modification allows synthesizing comb polymer chains of the binder with the penetration of the lateral branches into the formed pore spaces of the tex-tile carrier. Condition of polyester fiber after saponification estimated by indices: a loss of fi-ber mass, specific breaking load of the material, the content of carboxyl groups, the sorption of acrylic dispersion. The criterion for the rapid assessment of the quality of the fiber modifi-cation to change the micro-relief of its surface can serve the magnitude of the fiber mass loss, which must not exceed 3 %.

2016, Т. 59, № 6, Стр. 105‒111

CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF TECHNICAL FIBER OF FLAX, HEMP AND JUTE TO CELLULOSE AND THEIR PYROLYSIS

Taking into account the chemical composition and morphological features the tech-nical high purity fibers of flax, hemp and jute were studied as a new potential source of cellu-lose. The kinetics of the oxidation-hydrolytic method was shown for producing pulp from technical jute fibers in an aqueous alkaline medium containing the active components. The degree of removal of non-cellulosic components from technical jute fibers increases with the concentration of sodium hydroxide in an aqueous medium containing active additives, as well as with the increase in processing time and temperature. With the methods of chemical analysis, wide-angle X-ray scattering, FT-IR spectroscopy, electron microscopy the chemical composition and the supramolecular structure of the samples was studied. The thermal stabil-ity of the technical fibers, flax pulp, jute and hemp were determined. It was found that the ob-tained samples of linen, hemp and jute cellulose have I monoclinic modification.

2016, Т. 59, № 6, Стр. 97‒104

PROPERTIES OF 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BROMIDE IONIC LIQUID AND ITS BLENDS WITH WATER AND BROMIDES OF SILVER...

PROPERTIES OF 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BROMIDE IONIC LIQUID
AND ITS BLENDS WITH WATER AND BROMIDES OF SILVER, COPPER AND TANTALUM

2016, Т. 59, № 6, Стр. 89‒96

n/a

MECHANOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF CALCIUM TITANATE AND RESEARCH OF ITS PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY

Recently much attention is paid to the synthesis and study of the properties of inor-ganic materials, based on alkaline earth titanates with a perovskite structure that have vari-ous polymorphic forms depending on the temperature. Calcium titatanat (CaTiO3) can be se-lected from the variety of perovskites because of its relatively high dielectric constant, unique photochemical properties, chemical stability, and compatibility with biological tissues, which leads to its application in microelectronics, photocatalysis and biomedicine as bone implants. In this paper, a solid-phase synthesis of calcium titanate was carried out by ceramic technol-ogy using mechanochemistry methods. This method allows to obtain calcium titanate directly by mechanochemical activation from the initial mixture of Ca (OH)2 and TiO2, which signifi-cantly reduces the energy consumption for its production.

2016, Т. 59, № 6, Стр. 83-88

SOLUTION METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF OPTICALLY ACTIVE MULTILAYER TITANIUM DIOXIDE -NANOSILVER COATINGS ONTO POLYETHER SUBSTRATE

Photochromic multilayer TiO2/Ag/TiO2 coating was prepared on plastic PET substrate using a solution method. The titanium dioxide sol was successfully produced using the titanium tetraisopropoxide as precursor and the nitric acid as peptizing agent via the low-temperature sol-gel synthesis in aqueous medium. Titanium dioxide films were prepared by a sol-gel dip coating method from a colloid solution of nanocrystalline TiO2 sol. Thus, nanocrystalline tita-nium dioxide sol and an aqueous solution of silver complex [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 followed by a pho-tolysis for the reduction of silver ions to Ag nanoparticles with a plasmon resonance have been alternately deposited layer-by-layer. In result, heterostructures possessing photochromic prop-erties were formed. The TiO2/Ag/TiO2 coating was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscope (AFM) with different resolutions.

2016, Т. 59, № 6, Стр. 78‒82
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